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Assessing and improving the sanitation services in Kabarto 2 IDP camp using the Smart sanitation approach


Sanitation is a critical issue in internally displaced people (IDP) camps, where the lack of proper infrastructure and services can pose major health and environmental dangers. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the sanitation situation in Kabarto 2 IDP Camp in Iraq using the Smart Sanitation Approach comprising of three tools: SFD (Shit Flow Diagram), CSDA (Citywide Sanitation Diagnostic Assessment), and ECAM (Energy and Carbon Assessment for Environmental Management). The results show that the camp’s sanitation infrastructure is wholly unsafe, with faecal sludge (FS) not being properly contained, emptied, or treated. The operation of the desludging trucks and the incomplete treatment are the main causes of the sanitation system’s greenhouse gas emissions. The paper offers recommendations for enhancing the design and construction of the containment systems and restoring or upgrading the treatment plant. In conclusion, the study suggests improving data collection and monitoring, clear roles and responsibilities for the developing a faecal sludge management policy. The paper also makes suggestions for potential future applications of these tools, including the use of these technologies in more IDP camps or humanitarian settings to produce more data and knowledge about the provision of sanitation services in these settings and promote service improvement in the region.

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