Promoting economic recovery, resilience, acceptance and sustainability, Market Based Programming (MBP) is increasingly used by humanitarian agencies. Among a range of programme modalities that are based on understanding an supporting local market systems, there is a high level support for expanding use of cash transfers. Five programme, representative of different MBP/CTP modalities, were selected from a range of humanitarian contexts and locations, including vouchers for hygiene goods and sanitation services in informal tented settlements, conditional cash transfers for the construction of family latrines for Central African Refugees in the DRC, Cash and vouchers for hygiene to support the needs of internally displaced people in Colombia, Market based WASH response in Bangladesh, and Sanitation marketing in post-Haiyan Philippines. The qualitative study of the practicalities of these programmes and their successes and challenges gives rise to several lessons of importance to WASH practitioners seeking to support local markets or introduce MBP modalities into future sanitation or hygiene programmes. The recommendations for effective use of CASH/MBP in emergency WASH situations include coordination, preparedness, situation and response analysis, programme design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation.